Gardha, potato garden.
Ag treabha (i gcomhair gardha), forming potato ridges
by means of the plough; ploughing ground in
Iomaire gardha, ridge of a potato garden; potato
Cineard, unploughed space in which the horses turn
in ploughing headland.
Ag rianadh chineardaí. Sometimes the half of the
cineard which lies nearer the ends of the ridges
is ploughed towards the end of the ridges, and
the other half ploughed in the opposite direction.
(a) The furrows are continued by means of the
spade, and the ploughed half lying nearer the
ridges is made to form a continuation of the
ridges or (b) the furrows, and thence the ridges
are continued wholly across the cineard. The
act of performing the operations implied in (a)
and in (b) is called rianadh cineardaí.
Ag rómhar na gcineardaí, digging up the unploughed
headlands and forming them into continuations
of the ridges.
Ag díriughadh chineardaí, same as ag rianadh cineardaí
and as ag rómhar chineardaí.
Piocáil (i gcómhair gardha), act of paring with a
grafán, in order to make more level, &c., the sur-
face of a ridge, preparatory to planting potatoes;
Rómhar (i gcómhair gardha). This method of forming
ridges in lea by means of the spade corresponds
to the formation of ridges by means of the
(a) osgailt na hiomaire. A broad sod is dug and
folded or turned over on the lea. This opera-
tion, being repeated without intervals in the
line of length of the ridge, is called osgailt
ha hiomaire. A second line of equally broad
sods is then so dug that when the sods are
folded or turned over — in a direction con-
trary to that in which the sods in the first
line were turned — their edges touch the near-
est edges of the sods forming the first line.
(b) Na cnámha. A space about the breadth of one
of the sods first dug being left undisturbed,
the first-mentioned operations are repeated —
and so on to the required number of ridges.
Alternating with the lines of double rows of
sods are strips of undisturbed surface. These
strips are called the cnámha.
(c) sgolthadh (nó tógaint) na gcnámh. Each cnámh
is then split midways, half being dug and
turned over to touch the nearest edges of the
sods immediately to the left, and half to
touch the sods immediately to the right.
This operation, which completes the ridges
between the first opened and the last, is
called sgolthadh (nó tógaint) na gcnámh.
Rómhar seana-ghardha (i gcómhair prátaí). Two con-
secutive crops of potatoes are sometimes raised
off the same plot. In the preparation of the
ground for the second crop, the cnámha are made
to extend along the middle of the old dug-away
ridges, the spaces between the cnámha having
been dug up to form the surfaces of the new
Cur (nó cuir) riastála. This method of preparing
the ground without ploughing is generally prac-
tised in boggy (peaty) or wet land, in places in-
convenient for the plough, &c. Trenches, about
the breadth of an ordinary ridge apart, are
opened by paring off the surfaces with a grafán,
&c. Manure is spread on the spaces between the
trenches. Leathtar na sgiolláin anuas ar an
íleach. Tógathar na sgraitheacha agus leathtar
anuas ar na sgiolláin iad, ar a mbéal fútha.
(The “sets“ ar placed at proper distances apart
on the manure. The scroes — grassy surface
sods — taken off the surfaces of the trenches are
placed, grassy sides downward, on the sets and
manure.) The trenches are then dug, usually
with a special spade (ránn leathan), and the
clods, as they are being dug, are placed by the
spade on the ridges to completely cover both sets
to the first moulding or first earthing. Teh
second earthing is done in the usual way.
Ag riastail, paring off the grassy surface in opening
Tá an pháirc sin riastáltha agam.
Ar dheinis an riastáil fós?
Ag tógaint riastála, placing (usually with the grassy
sides downward) in lines in the trenches the sods
pared off in opening the trenches.
Clais riastála, the trench when opened; the trench
when dug. These trenches are also called clasa
Ag baint clasa chúdaigh, nó ag cur (cuir)
Ránn leathan, longer and broader than an ordinary
“Cuir fé chrios” (?) A crop of potatoes sometimes
succeeds a crop of potatoes for the planting of
which the ground was prepared according to the
method called riastail. As the ridges of the first
crop are being dug the soil thrown out by the
spade is kept as far as possible from falling into
the trenches, and any that falls in is afterwards
thrown back. The loose soil of each of the dug-
away ridges is heaped in a line along the middle
of that ridge. The trenches are levelled up with
sods dug from the brows of the remains of the
old ridges. Manure is spread on the spaces be-
tween the lines of earth, i.e. on the surfaces of
distances apart on the manure. The earth of the
lines is thrown on the sets and manure. The
spaces occupied by the lines of earth, i.e., the
cnámha of the new ridges, are dug and the clods
placed on the ridges to more throughly cover
both sets and manure.
“Mionuigheann an cuir fé chrios na prátaí.”
Prátaí síl, seed potatoes: potatoes to be cut into
sections for planting.
Súil an phráta, eye of the potato, from which grows
a sprout (piac, f., gs. péice).
(a) Súile dubha aige (.i. ag) na prátaí sin
ní'l siad oireamhnach ar iad a ghearradh chun
síl. Ní'l aon mhaith is (in) na prátaí i gcomh-
air síl mar théigheadar sa pholl (pit or
(b) Súile folláine, sound eyes.
(c) Súile dearga, red eyes, the rest of the surface
of the potato being of another colour.
Sgiollán, potato section for planting, having at least
one eye; a “set”.
Sgiolláin gharbha, large sets.
Sgiolláin mhiona, small sets.
Tá sgreamh tagaithe ar na sgiollánaibh, a crust
has appeared on the cut surfaces of the sets; the
cut surfaces have dried — the sets are then fit for
Ag gearradh sgiollán, cutting potatoes in sets or sec-
tions for planting.
Mná sgiollán (a ghearradh), women cutting potatoes
insets; women skilful in cutting potatoes in set.
Sgian sgiollán (a ghearradh) knife used in cutting
out sets, usually a table knife (sgian cháis).
Cruileachán, that which is left of a potato after the
sets have been cut out.
(a) Ciscéim (nó satailt) na rainne, the step
(treadle) of the spade.
Tá an ciséim ó'n dtaobh clé, the step is
at the left side of the spade.
(b) Bachall (na ráinne, nó na ciscéime), that part
of the ciscéim which projects over the side
of the spade.
Bhain sé an bachall dom ráinn.
(c) Ag baint breacadh as an ráinn, beating out the
flat part of the spade, folding in a little of
the top, &c., at the forge, so as to make the
spade as nearly as possible like the new spade.
Bain breacadh as an ráinn sin.
Eirigh (téir) go dtí an cheárdcha & abair
leis an ngabha breacadh a bhaint as an ráinn
sin, mar tá sí ró bharra-chaol.
(d) Ránn Earraigh, Spring spade, a long narrow
spade for digging hard ground.
(e) Ciopóg, a spade very much worn.
Máilín sgiollán, pouch, &c. for holding a supply of
sets in planting.
Ag sádh sgiollán, planting potatoes by making cuts
(poill) with a spade an depositing a set in each
cut or opening (poll). Geár fód na gruadh, cut
the brow-sod (of the ridge).
Sádh tiubh, making the cuts rather close to each other.
Sádh fánach, making the cuts rather far apart from each
Sádh díreach, making cuts so that they are both in lines
that are at right angles to the brows of the ridge
and in lines that are parallel to the brows.
Sádh fírinneach, same as sádh díreach.
Sádh cam — the lines of cuts not being so regular as in
Tuairgín (poll), a contrivance called a pounder for
closing by striking the cuts on the potato ridges.
It is made by inserting a handle about as long as
that of a spade midways in a light oblong, &c.,
piece of timber about two feet long.
Habhaistín (poll), same as tuairgín (poll), which is
also called máinléad (poll) and amadáinín (na
Ag bualadh poll, closing by striking the cuts made
on the ridges.
Clais, trench between two adjoining ridges.
Ag baint chlaise, digging the surface soil of a trench
with a spade, or loosening the surface with a
plough, preparatory to moulding or earthing.
Ag baint chlas, digging, &c., trenches.
Clais chruaidh, trench the surface soil of which is hard
Clais bhog — the surface soil being easily loosened.
Clais chas, trench in the loosening of the surface soil
of which the spade or plough encounters stone
of various sizes, hidden rocks, &c.
Ag baint na chéad chré, digging &c., the trenches,
preparatory to first-moulding or first-earthing.
Ag briseadh na gcnapóg, breaking (often with tuairgín
na bpoll or with a grafán) the clods put by the
spade on the ridges as the trenches are being
Ag briseach crústaí, ag briseadh fód, same as ag briseadh cnapóg.
Fód briosg (nó righin) le briseadh, clod brittle
(or tough) to break.
Cró (nó súil) na sluaiste, eye for the insertion
of the handle.
Ag caitheamh chré, taking earth with a shovel from the
trenches and spreading it on the ridges; casting
earth; moulding or earthing.
Ag cuir chré suas, same as ag caitheamh chré.
Ag caitheamh na chéad chré, first earthing.
Ag baint ath-chré, digging, &c., the trenches prepara-
tory to second-moulding or second-earthing.
Ag caitheamh na hath-chré, second-moulding.
Ag cuir na hath-chré suas, same as ag caitheamh na
Ag árdughadh (árdach) le gasaibh, putting mould or
earth taken from the trenches around and among
the young stalks when they are a few inches high
above the first earth, care being taken not to
completely hide them. A form a second mould-
Bhíos ag árdughadh (árdach) le gasaibh. Gas,
usually applied to that part of the potato plant
which is above ground.
An bhfuil na gais chun árduighthe leó? — .i. An
bhfuil siad árd a ndóthain chun árduighthe leó?
Ag glana ghardha, weeding a potato garden.
Seo cuid des na salachr is gnáthaighe bheith i
ngardha: athair thalmhain, caoch neanntóg, glúin-
íneach, copóg, feóchadán, bram fhéar, seasg fhéar,
praiseach bhuidhe, mismín, briosgalán, crobh
Bláth bán, potato blossom.
Tá bláth bán ar an ngas san thiar; tá cnap-
óga bláth báin tagaithe ar na gasaibh; tá na
bláth báin ag osgailt ar na gasaibh.
Ubhla gardha, potato-“apples.”
Beidh prátaí maithe annsan chun Sean-oidhche
Lúghnasa. Sean-Oidhche Lúghnasa, about a fort-
night after Oidhche Lúghnasa (night of 31st July).
Során, worm that cuts (?) potato-stalks below the sur-
face of the ridge.
An Dubh, the potato disease or blight.
Ag baint phrátaí, digging potatoes.
Ag baint iomaire prátaí, digging a ridge of potatoes.
(a) Do bhaineamair talamh mór (.i. a lán tailimh)
indiu, mar bhí an pháirc briosg (friable).
(b) Ní fhéadfaimis puínn a bhaint mar bhí an áit
'n-a sgraith fhéir (nó fhiadhaile).
(c) Bhíos amuich le solus prátaí (a bhaint), I was
out (in the morning) when it was just light-
some enough to commence digging potatoes.
(d) Ag fitheamh le solus prátaí (a bhaint), waiting
(generally in the potato garden) for the
morning light to grow bright enough for the
purpose of digging potatoes.
(e) Cionnus ta na prátaí agat? Ní'l siad acht
go hoireamhnach, they are but middling.
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